Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1960, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Sketch of the illustration to The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko, 1960, pencil

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Sketch of the illustration to The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko, 1960, ink

In the Soviet Union, children's books were given special attention because the authorities considered children’s literature a means of upbringing a "new Soviet man." In the 1920s when the new principles of book design started to form many illustrators turned to the avant-garde experience of the past decade — Kazimir Malevich’s suprematist experiments, publishing initiatives of The Union of Youth, The First Russian Futurists' Magazine, and Gileia (the group of futurists which was founded, in particular, by Ukrainian artist David Burliuk). At that time almost all nowadays recognized artists worked in the field of children's book: from Vladimir Tatlin to Oleksandra Ekster. For example, the leading constructivist of that period, Lazar Lissitzky, known under the name of El, prepared the books Small Goat (1919) and Saturday in the Forest (1920) which were issued in Yiddish in Kyiv. In the latter, the trees were depicted as letters, thus graphic forms represented nature. The next step to the creation of a narration by using only typographic symbols and geometric designs for El Lissitzky was the development of the work A Suprematist Tale of Two Squares in Six Constructions (Vitebsk, 1920) which is currently the most famous book of the epoch of constructivism.

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko, the cover, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1960, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv,1960, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv,1960, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv,1960, coloured linocut

During exactly the same period the heated debates over fairy tales unfolded. For example, Nadezhda Krupskaya who at that time held an authoritative position in the sphere of state regulation of education considered them "a bourgeois form of escapism" because of the presence of the fantasy elements in fairy-tale plots and sharply criticized the work of Korney Chukovsky, the author of many Soviet children's books. The fairy-tales were finally rehabilitated already in 1934 at the First Congress of Soviet Writers through the agency of the children's writer Samuil Marshak. Ironically, it was the same Congress where socialist realism was established as the "official method" of Soviet art, and the avant-garde trends in book design were henceforth forbidden at the state level.

In Ukraine, the first publishing house for children's literature was founded on March 9, 1934 (six months after the same institutions opened in Moscow and Leningrad) and was titled Dytvydav of the UkrSSR (abbreviation from Children’s Publishing House in Ukrainian). During the Second World War, books were issued by the editorial office of children's literature Youth. In 1956, on its basis, a new institution was created, albeit with the old name — Dytvydav of the UkrSSR. In 1964, the publishing house was renamed to Veselka (“Rainbow” in Ukrainian), and since the organization has been functioning under this name.

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Fairy-tale about Linden and Covetous Woman, the cover,1961, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Fairy-tale about Linden and Covetous Woman, 1961, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Sketch of the Illustration to Fairy-tale about Linden and Covetous Woman, 1961, pencil

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Sketch of the Illustration to Fairy-tale about Linden and Covetous Woman, 1961, pencil

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Fairy-tale about Linden and Covetous Woman, 1961, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Fairy-tale about Linden and Covetous Woman, 1961, coloured linocut

The doctrine of socialist realism that implied for the artist "the depiction of reality in its historical actuality," was hard to apply to the fantasy worlds of children’s literature. Consequently, this field has always offered relatively greater freedom for artists than, for example, the field of oil painting. During the early Thaw several important events took place that significantly influenced the development of the artistic environment of the Soviet Union — starting from the exhibition of works of the Impressionists at the Museum of European Art in Moscow, through the large retrospective of Pablo Picasso’s artworks in Moscow and Leningrad to International Exhibition of Fine and Applied Arts at the VI World Youth Festival (where, by the way, Heorhiy Yakutovych encountered works of Diego Rivera for the first time). At that time, the censorship of art weakened for a short period of time, thus artists actively turned to children's illustrations that became for them the genuine space of creative experiments.

In the early 1960s, Heorhiy Yakutovych designed several children's books — The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko (illustrations created in 1960, the book was published in 1961) and Fairy-tale about Linden and Covetous Woman (1961) — that became important milestones in the development of own artistic style. In his artistic practice, Heorhiy was always attentive to the text he worked with. He did not want to create a visual accompaniment of the book which would serve as an annexe but concentrated his efforts on achieving the unity of the literary and visual parts. Thus in the design of children's books, Heorhiy worked over the organization of space, a combination of graphic elements with the author's font, colour (in these books, he coloured linocuts) and the development of expressive characters. In some sketches, found in the family archive, one can notice that the artist started with simple forms that made the creation of a balanced composition possible and then proceeded to details. The book The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko in which black and white miniatures alternate with coloured page illustrations entered the fifty best editions of 1961 and was awarded the first-degree diploma.

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Marіia Pryhara's Cossack Holota, the cover, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1965, linocut, watercolour

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Marіia Pryhara's Cossack Holota, the tale The Escape of Three Brothers from Azov, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1965, linocut, watercolour

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Marіia Pryhara's Cossack Holota, the tale About Ivas Konovchenko, the Widow's Son, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1965, linocut, watercolour

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Marіia Pryhara's Cossack Holota, the tale Khveska Handzha Andyber, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1965, linocut, watercolour

For Heorhiy the 1960s were a period of work on Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors. In 1965, in-between the film and the book, Yura turned to Ukrainian folk dumas, composing illustrations to Marіia Pryhara's a collection of stories based on duma’s motives. In this book, each tale is preceded by one full-page image and the text contains semi-striped illustrations. The art language chosen by Yakutovych differs greatly from one he used in the design of the previously discussed books. In the depiction of the plot and the form of dumas for a young reader, the artist focused on the rhythm and grandeur of the image which is achieved with the curves that tend to be ornamental. For this book, has Heorhiy also developed an author's font. An important element of the design of Cossack Holota, the work with colour: Yura painted frontispieces and half-titles with a watercolour in an unusual way, contouring the lines that form the characters. This author's solution gave depth and volume to the illustrations, but, unfortunately, in 1980 the collection was reprinted only with black and white images.

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Dmytro Pavluchko's Deer with Golden Antlers, the cover, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1970, etching

In the early 1970s, Heorhiy arranged a book by Dmytro Pavlychko Deer with Golden Antlers, in which he achieved an organic combination of the literary and textual parts. The plot of the poem is developed in the Carpathians, so the artist worked on illustrating his favourite subject. The natural form — the moon, the sun, flowers, leaves, trees, etc. — acquired here the great significance, they formed Carpathian landscapes with the decoration of different-directional curves. Lidia Popova, the author of one of the books on Heorhiy Yakutovych’s oeuvre, published in 1988, during Perestroika, noted that in these illustrations the artist redefined the folk traditions of embroidering and painting the tiles for the furnace and for the first time abandoned the monumental engravings on wood or linoleum in favour of etching. Indeed, Heorhiy's illustrations to Deer with Golden Antlers are ornamental and decorative that is achieved through excessive detailization of the background and repetitions of graphic elements. In this context, the schematics of the characters’ representation and concentration on their most distinctive features added to the artworks informality, similar to children's drawings, and facilitated adaptation of the text for young readers.

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Sketch of illustration to Dmytro Pavluchko's Deer with Golden Antlers, 1970, charcoal

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Dmytro Pavluchko's Deer with Golden Antlers, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1970, etching

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Sketch of illustration to Dmytro Pavluchko's Deer with Golden Antlers, 1970, charcoal

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Sketch of illustration to Dmytro Pavluchko's Deer with Golden Antlers, 1970, pencil, ink

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Dmytro Pavluchko's Deer with Golden Antlers, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1970, etching

It is known that the period of "stagnation" was particularly difficult for the artistic environment of Ukraine. And despite the fact socialist realism principles such as "partyness" and "peopleness" did not gain such importance in the field of children's illustration as it was in the field of painting, propaganda publications were the basis of thematic plans of publishing houses. For example, during the 1968-1973 period, the editorial office of Veselka Publishing House paid considerable attention to "the governing role of the party and its founder Volodymyr Ilyich Lenin" and "the heroic way of the Soviet state." In 1970, to the 100th anniversary of Lenin's birth, a true "Ukrainian Leniniana” was created for young readers, comprised more than fifty editions. Thus the book Deer with Golden Antlers was significantly distinct among the products of Veselka Publishing House.

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Marko Cheremshyna's The Thief Caught, the tale Chіchka, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1974, etching

Heorhiy Yakutovych.Illustration to Marko Cheremshyna's The Thief Caught, the tale The Thief Caught, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv 1974, etching

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Marko Cheremshyna's The Thief Caught, the tale Notches, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1974, etching

Heorhiy Yakutovych.Illustration to Marko Cheremshyna's The Thief Caught, the cover, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1974, etching

However, the editorial office of the publishing house paid great attention to children's illustrations: regular meetings of writers, artists, school teachers and printing staff on issues of children's books design were held, and corresponding republican exhibitions and contests were organized. In 1977, within one of such exhibitions, entitled The Art of Designing Children's and Youth Books, along with illustrations by Olga Yakutovych to works Maxim Gorky’s Small Sparrow and Leo Tolstoy's The Ant and the Dove, the artworks of Heorhiy Yakutovych to Marko Cheremshyna's The Thief Caught were displayed. This book was published by Veselka Publishing House in 1974, and the illustrations were made in the technique of etching. The artist again modified his own artistic style, adding new elements, but remained recognizable. In the illustration to The Thief Caught Heorhiy did not schematize the image of the characters as in Deer with Golden Antlers. He meticulously elaborated each element of the illustrations; a huge amount of microscopic strokes caused the expressiveness and visual unity of the artworks. The artist placed a depiction of huge flowers and butterflies nearby the characters that (in the opposition to the principles of socialist realism) provided the scenes with intimacy and appropriate drama. In half-titles, the artist concentrated on the brightest images of the tales, creating from their compilation an integral composition and retelling the plot with one illustration. As in the design of other children's books, Heorhiy developed a font for The Thief Caught, which, while maintaining the style of illustrations, is organically combined with the text.

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Marko Cheremshyna's The Thief Caught, the tale Notches, half-title, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1974, etching

The design of children's literature in Ukraine in Soviet times still requires careful study and scrutiny. In this episode, we tried to outline the development of the field of children’s illustration and raise the issue of the need to select samples of conscientious work of artists on book design among mediocre propaganda works. For Heorhiy Yakutovych, the creation of the books was not a means of earning money — Serhiy recalled that his father had never tried to push through his artworks in publishing house due to the conviction "publish if you want." For Yura, the sphere of children's illustrations has become a space for search and elaboration of his own artistic language, and nowadays, the exploration of the oeuvre of other artists who were similarly concerned with the design of children's literature is necessary for a deeper understanding of the artistic phenomena in Ukraine.

References
Evgeny Steiner. Avant-garde and the Construction of New Man: Art of Soviet Children’s Book in the 1920s. (Moscow: New Literary Review, 2002). Russian edition of the book Evgeny Steiner, Stories for Little Comrades: Revolutionary Artists and the Making of Early Soviet Children’s Books, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999).
Catriona Kelly, “‘Thank-You for the Wonderful Book’: Soviet Child Readers and the Management of Children’s Reading, 1950-1975,” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 6, no. 4 (November 23, 2005): 717–53, https://doi.org/10.1353/kri.2005.0054.
Lidiya Popova. H.Yakutovych, (Moscow: Soviet Artist, 1988)
The description of the fund #667; Republican exhibition and competition The Art of Designing Children's and Youth Books, Veselka and Molod’ (Youth) Publishing Houses, fund 986, case 313. Ukrainian Central State Archive-Museum of Literature and Art
Serhiy Yakutovych’s recollection of his father, Heorhiy Yakutovych, published in Polina Limina, Like a Shadow. Heorhiy Yakutovych as an illustrator of the book “Shadow of Forgotten Ancestors” (Kyiv: Artbook Publishing House, 2017)

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1960, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Sketch of the illustration to The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko, 1960, pencil

In the Soviet Union, children's books were given special attention because the authorities considered children’s literature a means of upbringing a "new Soviet man." In the 1920s when the new principles of book design started to form many illustrators turned to the avant-garde experience of the past decade — Kazimir Malevich’s suprematist experiments, publishing initiatives of The Union of Youth, The First Russian Futurists' Magazine, and Gileia (the group of futurists which was founded, in particular, by Ukrainian artist David Burliuk). At that time almost all nowadays recognized artists worked in the field of children's book: from Vladimir Tatlin to Oleksandra Ekster. For example, the leading constructivist of that period, Lazar Lissitzky, known under the name of El, prepared the books Small Goat (1919) and Saturday in the Forest (1920) which were issued in Yiddish in Kyiv. In the latter, the trees were depicted as letters, thus graphic forms represented nature. The next step to the creation of a narration by using only typographic symbols and geometric designs for El Lissitzky was the development of the work A Suprematist Tale of Two Squares in Six Constructions (Vitebsk, 1920) which is currently the most famous book of the epoch of constructivism.

During exactly the same period the heated debates over fairy tales unfolded. For example, Nadezhda Krupskaya who at that time held an authoritative position in the sphere of state regulation of education considered them "a bourgeois form of escapism" because of the presence of the fantasy elements in fairy-tale plots and sharply criticized the work of Korney Chukovsky, the author of many Soviet children's books. The fairy-tales were finally rehabilitated already in 1934 at the First Congress of Soviet Writers through the agency of the children's writer Samuil Marshak. Ironically, it was the same Congress where socialist realism was established as the "official method" of Soviet art, and the avant-garde trends in book design were henceforth forbidden at the state level.

In Ukraine, the first publishing house for children's literature was founded on March 9, 1934 (six months after the same institutions opened in Moscow and Leningrad) and was titled Dytvydav of the UkrSSR (abbreviation from Children’s Publishing House in Ukrainian). During the Second World War, books were issued by the editorial office of children's literature Youth. In 1956, on its basis, a new institution was created, albeit with the old name — Dytvydav of the UkrSSR. In 1964, the publishing house was renamed to Veselka (“Rainbow” in Ukrainian), and since the organization has been functioning under this name.

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Sketch of the illustration to The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko, 1960, ink

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko, the cover, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1960, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv,1960, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv,1960, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv,1960, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Sketch of the Illustration to Fairy-tale about Linden and Covetous Woman, 1961, pencil

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Fairy-tale about Linden and Covetous Woman, 1961, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Fairy-tale about Linden and Covetous Woman, the cover,1961, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Fairy-tale about Linden and Covetous Woman, 1961, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Sketch of the Illustration to Fairy-tale about Linden and Covetous Woman, 1961, pencil

The doctrine of socialist realism that implied for the artist "the depiction of reality in its historical actuality," was hard to apply to the fantasy worlds of children’s literature. Consequently, this field has always offered relatively greater freedom for artists than, for example, the field of oil painting. During the early Thaw several important events took place that significantly influenced the development of the artistic environment of the Soviet Union — starting from the exhibition of works of the Impressionists at the Museum of European Art in Moscow, through the large retrospective of Pablo Picasso’s artworks in Moscow and Leningrad to International Exhibition of Fine and Applied Arts at the VI World Youth Festival (where, by the way, Heorhiy Yakutovych encountered works of Diego Rivera for the first time). At that time, the censorship of art weakened for a short period of time, thus artists actively turned to children's illustrations that became for them the genuine space of creative experiments.

In the early 1960s, Heorhiy Yakutovych designed several children's books — The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko (illustrations created in 1960, the book was published in 1961) and Fairy-tale about Linden and Covetous Woman (1961) — that became important milestones in the development of own artistic style. In his artistic practice, Heorhiy was always attentive to the text he worked with. He did not want to create a visual accompaniment of the book which would serve as an annexe but concentrated his efforts on achieving the unity of the literary and visual parts. Thus in the design of children's books, Heorhiy worked over the organization of space, a combination of graphic elements with the author's font, colour (in these books, he coloured linocuts) and the development of expressive characters. In some sketches, found in the family archive, one can notice that the artist started with simple forms that made the creation of a balanced composition possible and then proceeded to details. The book The Poor Lad and the Rich Marko in which black and white miniatures alternate with coloured page illustrations entered the fifty best editions of 1961 and was awarded the first-degree diploma.

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Fairy-tale about Linden and Covetous Woman, 1961, coloured linocut

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Marіia Pryhara's Cossack Holota, the cover, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1965, linocut, watercolour

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Marіia Pryhara's Cossack Holota, the tale The Escape of Three Brothers from Azov, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1965, linocut, watercolour

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Marіia Pryhara's Cossack Holota, the tale About Ivas Konovchenko, the Widow's Son, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1965, linocut, watercolour

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Marіia Pryhara's Cossack Holota, the tale Khveska Handzha Andyber, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1965, linocut, watercolour

For Heorhiy the 1960s were a period of work on Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors. In 1965, in-between the film and the book, Yura turned to Ukrainian folk dumas, composing illustrations to Marіia Pryhara's a collection of stories based on duma’s motives. In this book, each tale is preceded by one full-page image and the text contains semi-striped illustrations. The art language chosen by Yakutovych differs greatly from one he used in the design of the previously discussed books. In the depiction of the plot and the form of dumas for a young reader, the artist focused on the rhythm and grandeur of the image which is achieved with the curves that tend to be ornamental. For this book, has Heorhiy also developed an author's font. An important element of the design of Cossack Holota, the work with colour: Yura painted frontispieces and half-titles with a watercolour in an unusual way, contouring the lines that form the characters. This author's solution gave depth and volume to the illustrations, but, unfortunately, in 1980 the collection was reprinted only with black and white images.

In the early 1970s, Heorhiy arranged a book by Dmytro Pavlychko Deer with Golden Antlers, in which he achieved an organic combination of the literary and textual parts. The plot of the poem is developed in the Carpathians, so the artist worked on illustrating his favourite subject. The natural form — the moon, the sun, flowers, leaves, trees, etc. — acquired here the great significance, they formed Carpathian landscapes with the decoration of different-directional curves. Lidia Popova, the author of one of the books on Heorhiy Yakutovych’s oeuvre, published in 1988, during Perestroika, noted that in these illustrations the artist redefined the folk traditions of embroidering and painting the tiles for the furnace and for the first time abandoned the monumental engravings on wood or linoleum in favour of etching. Indeed, Heorhiy's illustrations to Deer with Golden Antlers are ornamental and decorative that is achieved through excessive detailization of the background and repetitions of graphic elements. In this context, the schematics of the characters’ representation and concentration on their most distinctive features added to the artworks informality, similar to children's drawings, and facilitated adaptation of the text for young readers.

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Dmytro Pavluchko's Deer with Golden Antlers, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1970, etching

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Sketch of illustration to Dmytro Pavluchko's Deer with Golden Antlers, 1970, charcoal

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Sketch of illustration to Dmytro Pavluchko's Deer with Golden Antlers, 1970, pencil, ink

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Sketch of illustration to Dmytro Pavluchko's Deer with Golden Antlers, 1970, charcoal

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Dmytro Pavluchko's Deer with Golden Antlers, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1970, etching

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Dmytro Pavluchko's Deer with Golden Antlers, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1970, etching

It is known that the period of "stagnation" was particularly difficult for the artistic environment of Ukraine. And despite the fact socialist realism principles such as "partyness" and "peopleness" did not gain such importance in the field of children's illustration as it was in the field of painting, propaganda publications were the basis of thematic plans of publishing houses. For example, during the 1968-1973 period, the editorial office of Veselka Publishing House paid considerable attention to "the governing role of the party and its founder Volodymyr Ilyich Lenin" and "the heroic way of the Soviet state." In 1970, to the 100th anniversary of Lenin's birth, a true "Ukrainian Leniniana” was created for young readers, comprised more than fifty editions. Thus the book Deer with Golden Antlers was significantly distinct among the products of Veselka Publishing House.

However, the editorial office of the publishing house paid great attention to children's illustrations: regular meetings of writers, artists, school teachers and printing staff on issues of children's books design were held, and corresponding republican exhibitions and contests were organized. In 1977, within one of such exhibitions, entitled The Art of Designing Children's and Youth Books, along with illustrations by Olga Yakutovych to works Maxim Gorky’s Small Sparrow and Leo Tolstoy's The Ant and the Dove, the artworks of Heorhiy Yakutovych to Marko Cheremshyna's The Thief Caught were displayed. This book was published by Veselka Publishing House in 1974, and the illustrations were made in the technique of etching. The artist again modified his own artistic style, adding new elements, but remained recognizable. In the illustration to The Thief Caught Heorhiy did not schematize the image of the characters as in Deer with Golden Antlers. He meticulously elaborated each element of the illustrations; a huge amount of microscopic strokes caused the expressiveness and visual unity of the artworks. The artist placed a depiction of huge flowers and butterflies nearby the characters that (in the opposition to the principles of socialist realism) provided the scenes with intimacy and appropriate drama. In half-titles, the artist concentrated on the brightest images of the tales, creating from their compilation an integral composition and retelling the plot with one illustration. As in the design of other children's books, Heorhiy developed a font for The Thief Caught, which, while maintaining the style of illustrations, is organically combined with the text.

Heorhiy Yakutovych.Illustration to Marko Cheremshyna's The Thief Caught, the tale The Thief Caught, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv 1974, etching

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Marko Cheremshyna's The Thief Caught, the tale Notches, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1974, etching

Heorhiy Yakutovych.Illustration to Marko Cheremshyna's The Thief Caught, the cover, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1974, etching

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Marko Cheremshyna's The Thief Caught, the tale Chіchka, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1974, etching

Heorhiy Yakutovych. Illustration to Marko Cheremshyna's The Thief Caught, the tale Notches, half-title, Veselka Publishing House, Kyiv, 1974, etching

The design of children's literature in Ukraine in Soviet times still requires careful study and scrutiny. In this episode, we tried to outline the development of the field of children’s illustration and raise the issue of the need to select samples of conscientious work of artists on book design among mediocre propaganda works. For Heorhiy Yakutovych, the creation of the books was not a means of earning money — Serhiy recalled that his father had never tried to push through his artworks in publishing house due to the conviction "publish if you want." For Yura, the sphere of children's illustrations has become a space for search and elaboration of his own artistic language, and nowadays, the exploration of the oeuvre of other artists who were similarly concerned with the design of children's literature is necessary for a deeper understanding of the artistic phenomena in Ukraine.

References
Evgeny Steiner. Avant-garde and the Construction of New Man: Art of Soviet Children’s Book in the 1920s. (Moscow: New Literary Review, 2002). Russian edition of the book Evgeny Steiner, Stories for Little Comrades: Revolutionary Artists and the Making of Early Soviet Children’s Books, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999).
Catriona Kelly, “‘Thank-You for the Wonderful Book’: Soviet Child Readers and the Management of Children’s Reading, 1950-1975,” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 6, no. 4 (November 23, 2005): 717–53, https://doi.org/10.1353/kri.2005.0054.
Lidiya Popova. H.Yakutovych, (Moscow: Soviet Artist, 1988)
The description of the fund #667; Republican exhibition and competition The Art of Designing Children's and Youth Books, Veselka and Molod’ (Youth) Publishing Houses, fund 986, case 313. Ukrainian Central State Archive-Museum of Literature and Art
Serhiy Yakutovych’s recollection of his father, Heorhiy Yakutovych, published in Polina Limina, Like a Shadow. Heorhiy Yakutovych as an illustrator of the book “Shadow of Forgotten Ancestors” (Kyiv: Artbook Publishing House, 2017)